Volume 7, Issue 1, Autumn 2017, Page 1-116


ISOLATION & RHIZOBIUM FROM SESBANIA PLANT MENT ASSESS AND ITS IMPACT ON SOME GROWTH INDICATORS

Hayder Ragheb AL-shujeary

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

Two trials carried out at one laboratory and، second in field to study the activity of bacteria Rhizobium under the influence of variations of soil salinity on the growth of the plant Sesbania led the results of bacterial inoculation to an increase in the rate of plant height and the rate of dry weight and the number of formed on the roots of the plant Alcspan root ganglia and increase the readiness of the elements in the soil, especially nitrogen component. Results showed the superiority of the fertilized transactions for non-vaccinated transactions F1 and F2 in the nitrogen content in plant leaves Sesbania, with 3.042 and 2.785% recorded in the order and the results show that the vaccination a major role in increasing the number of effective root nodules formed on the roots of the plant, as was the number of nodes rate effective root formed on the inoculated plants F1,33.73 radical knots. -1 Plant, while the plants that did not add to it the vaccine F2 was 21.40 knots drastic effective. Plant -1. Showed laboratory tests for salinity there is clearly down in the preparation of bacteria Alraazoubia rate the higher the levels of salinity (EC), reaching the highest rate of the number of bacteria at the EC 2.19 dS.m-1 172 bacterial colony while the lowest number of bacteria is 6 colony when the salt level ( EC) dS.m-1 40 have attributed the decline in the number of bacteria increased salt levels to the direct effect of salinity and increased NaCl concentration increasing salinity. Increased concentrations of salt in the soil to reduce the activity Rhizobium and reduce the readiness of the elements and dry weight and the number of active root nodules formed on the plant Sesbania and the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron in the leaves and seeds.

ACTIVATED AND REPRODUCTION THE INOCULUM MYCORRHIZA- GLOMUS MOSSEAE LOCALLY UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE DRYLANDS

Idham A. A. Alassaffii

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 8-13

The study executed in field Agriculture Collage – Al-Anbar University – alternative location in Abu Ghraib through term 30/7 up to 15/10/2015, in order the work of the experiment included activation and propagation mycorrhizal inoculum Glomus mosseae by using two hosts sorghum and sesbania plants, and the results summarized:- Significant superiority in infection rate amount to 26% by using mother inoculum G.mosseae to non-inoculum treatments with excellence infection rate root sesbania plant the highest infection rate a percentage 15.8% comparison with infection rate of sorghum roots. Investigating highest rate in total infected lengths roots, wet weight and dry ,that considered inoculum stimulating and product from treatment inoculum G.mosseae amount to 19, 64 and 60% respectively on the relay comparison non-inoculum treatment with excellence sesbania to result sorghum plant. Excellence the rate number spore mycorrhizal in soil inoculum amount to 22% to non-inoculum treatment, and excellence with sesbania plant rate amount to 82% on sorghum plant.

EFFECT OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZER TO REDUCE THE EFFECTS OF DROUGHT TO GROWTH AND QUALITY OF THE RAPSEED

Zaid Abd Ali Garad AL.Issawi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 14-20

Field experimental was carried out in winter season 2015-2016 in experimental field_coll. Of Agri. university of Al. Anbar (Alternative sit Abu_ Ghraib) in the clay silt to study the effect of four level of potassium fertilizer (potassium sulphate K2SO4) that is (0, 80, 120 and 240 Kg.ha-1) with three period of Irrigation (10, 20 and 30 days) in the growth and holds rapseed in the study used in a split -plots arrangement in randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D) with three replicates it fertilizer levels of potassium main plots and served as irrigation periods secondary plots. Adding of potassium fertilizer at level of 240 Kg.ha-1 leading. The highest average recipes plant hight (177.9 cm), leaf area (1912 cm2), number of siliqua (204.8 siliqua.plant-1), number of seeds in siliqua (26.53 seed.Siliqua-1), overall winning (1785 Kg.h-1), oil percent (42.778%), potassium percent (0.7078%). Irrigation period recorded (10 days) the highest value of recipes such as plant hight (168.6 cm), number of siliqua (194.9 siliqua.plant-1), number of seeds in siliqua (24.87 seed.Siliqua-1), overall winning (1674 Kg.h-1), oil percent (41.950%), potassium percent (0.6617%), . while the period of (20 days) leading highest average recipes such as leaf area (1472cm2).

EFFECT OF BIO- FERTILIZE IN ABSORPTION OF PHOSPHORUS FROM ROCK PHOSPHATE AND EFFECTS IN GROWTH CUCUMBER

Aiman A. AL-karboly

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 21-28

A field experiment was carried out in a greenhouse belong to plant protection office- Ministry of Agriculture in order to study effects of bio fertilizer and organic matter addition in presence of phosphate rock and the interaction in the availability of phosphorus in soil and the absorbed from it as well as its relation with growth and yield of cucumber during 2015. Experiment Add two types of the first bio-compost bacteria Bacillus and second fungi Mycorrhiza and two levels of organic matter with the addition of rock phosphate for all transactions by recommendation included, the first transaction T1 is fertilized microbiological with two levels of organic matter first level Add organic matter and the level of the other without organic matter, The second transaction T2 which added to bacteria Bacillus with the addition of organic matter or without the addition of organic material, and the third treatment T3, which added to fungi Mycorrhiza with the addition of organic matter or without organic matter and finally. It obtained the highest values of the finished items in the soil after 45 days from sowing and the percentage of increase as a percentage of treatment T4M1 that were fertilized with bacteria and fungi (19.18 and 18.83 and 16.81, 42 and 25.75%) for each of the N, P, K, Fe and Zn sequentially compared with treatment T1M1 which was without vaccination was the highest percentage increase of the elements in the papers as a percentage (N, P, K) and Fe), and Zn), which gave (11.14 and 26.06 and 3.84)% and (36.6 and 16.65)% sequentially for the treatment of T4M1 which were fertilized with fungi and bacteria, compared with the treatment T1M1 which was without vaccination after 45 days from sowing, this confirms that the bio-fertilize a clear role in those qualities. Has made use of bio-fertilization best results was the sole source of phosphorus rock phosphate is added in this study.

GROWTH AND YIELD OF PEANUTS ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L. AS INFLUENCED BY PLANTING PATTERN AND IRRIGATION

M. N. Kadum

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 29-35

A field experiment was carried out at field experiments of Abu Ghraib Agricultural Research Station / Ministry of Agriculture, in order to study the effect of different methods of planting and irrigation methods in the characteristics of growth, yield and components of cultivar (IPA 8) semi-erect. A factorial experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design were used two factors with three replications, the first factor consisted upon four agriculture cultivation methods ( rows, rows then furrow, furrow and shoulders), the second factor included irrigation factor (T), the first levels (T1) irrigation depletion of 50- 55% of the field capacity and the second (T2) when depletion of about 70-75% of the field capacity (deleting one irrigation between each two). The results showed the superiority of the method of cultivation on the lines and then furrow the highest dry weight of the plant was 127 g.plants-1,number of pods. Plant-1 55.7, seed weight 52g. Plants-1, pods yield and grains (6.2 and 5.2) tons.h-1 respectively. The T1 irrigation method gave a higher dry weight of plant a 129.2 g. Plant-1, higher weight of seeds 48.3 g.Plant-1, total yield of seeds and pods (6.3 and 4.9 tons.h-1) respectively. The interaction between the method of plants on lines then furrow at the treatment of irrigation (T1) had a significant effect on the number of seeds.Plant -1 reached 108.1 seeds. Plant-1, seed weight was 58.6 g.Plant-1 and total seed yield was 5.8 Ton.h-1, while no significant differences were found in the percentage between yield of seeds to yield of pods in irrigation parameters.

EFFECT OF PLANTING DATE AND MEDIUM TYPES ON ROOTING AND GROWTH ASHRASI OLIVE CUTTING OLEA EUROPEA L

Mahmood Fadhil Lateef

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 36-42

A study was carried out in the plastic houses Hort. Land scape Dept. college of Agriculture / Tikrit university during growth season 2015-2016 to know effect the date of cuttings olive c.v Ashrasi on four dates ( 1/11 , 15/11 , 1/12 , 15/12 ) . and three medium growth (sand built, peatmoss and mixed of peatmoss and sand ratio of (1:1)) in rotting and growth olive cutting ,Length of root 7-10 cm. with two leaves and using concentration of (IBA)( 3000 mg. Liter-1 ) powder Experiment designed was randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D) as factorial experiment including two factor (12 factorial treatment) with four replication. Result revealed that The second date of cutting collected as significantly in 15/11 gave highest percentage success of rooting (70.00 %) , and as significantly the four date average rate roots number the in 15/12 (5.64 root /plant-1) , average root length root (5.23 cm/root-1), average rate length growth vegetative in 15/12 (3.85cm./plant-1) and average rate of leaves number in 1/12 (8.64 leaf/plant-1). The medium consisting of peatmoss effect as significantly to characteristics studied percentage success of rooting 72.38 %, number of roots5.03 rot/plant-1, length of roots 5.67 cm. /root-1,length growth vegetative 4.28 cm/plant-1 and number of leaves 9.17 leaf/plant-1. Therefore, does the overlap between the date of taking the cutting and the type of medium has shown moral influence in the studied traits

EFFECT OF DAP APPLICATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD CHARACTERISTICS OF BREAD AND DURUM WHEAT GENOTYPES GROWN UNDER DESERT ENVIRONMENT.

Hamada M.M ALFahdawi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 43-49

Seven genotypes of bread wheat (IPA 99, Abu – Ghraib-33, sham 6, Ezz, latifiyah, Fateh and (wheat 17), as well as six genotypes of durum wheat viz. cultivar (Dor 85) and five mutants (38, 53, 7, 49 and 82) were sown. These were sown in two separate experiments in winter season 13 December 2011-2012 in Ouasel location which represents Agro-desert environment in Anbar province.This location had depended on artesian water to irrigate crops .The objective of this study were to investigate the growth and the productivity of these genotypes at this environment.The application of combined fertilizer (DAP) N-P2O5-K (0-46-18) % added 200 kg.h-1once and without addition. Genotypes were arranged in main plots, but application DAP and without were taken up in sub plots, using RCBD with three replicates. 120 kg seeds ha-1 were broadcasted. Result revealed that in Bread wheat genotypes. Wheat 17 was significantly superior in chlorophyll, area of flag leaf and spike length as 60.3, 27.3cm2and 13.1 cm respectively. Alezz genotype also significantly gave the highest average of plant height, 1000 grain weight of 65.9 cm and 46.0 gm, respectively. Furthermore, sham 6 significantly gave the highest average of spike number about 359.5 spike .m2 and IPA 99 gave the highest grain number per spike at 61.3 grain. The application of DAP increased average of all tested traits except 1000 grain weight and harvest index .The interactive combination of Latifiya with 200 kg ha-1 significantly gave the highest yield as 3.2 ton.ha-1. In the durum wheat experiment, mutant 53 was superior in chlorophyll at 61.2 and mutant 49 significantly had the highest grain number per spike at 52.4, 1000 grain weight as 35.4 gm., grain yield at 2.1 ton ha-1 and harvest index at 36.7%. It could be concluded that the genotypes of bread and durum wheat were significantly grown which gave satisfied yield there by application of DAP fertilizer. However the irrigation at wide agricultural areas in this desert environment with surface method wasn’t economic which consumed large quantities of water. Therefore, it could be recommended that the decisions makers should find suitable solutions to reduce water consumption and economically invested using modern irrigation systems to increase the production.

THE EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF MAGNESIUM ON SOME GROWTH PARAMETERS AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT

Asmaa Abed Alameer Beden

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 50-55

This experiment was carried out in the Biology Dept.- Collage of Education for Woman –University of Anbar during the Winter Season 2012-2013. The aim was to study the effect of several levels of magnesium (0, 100, 150, 200 and 250)mg.L-1 Mgo, Application foliar spray on some growth parameters and yield components of wheat variety (Fatah) which include Nitrogen, Phosphor, Potassium, magnesium, plant height, No. of grains, weight 1000 grain . The experiment has also included (CRD)was used at three replicates for each treatment. Flowerpots with a capacity of (8) kg of soil have been prepared : Fertilizers have been added to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) according to recommendation. the sprayed on plant leaves, seven times each levels of added magnesium, one spraying for each ten days. The results could be summarized as follows. Increasing levels of magnesium addition had significantly affect; addition magnesium level at 200 mg.L-1. Potassium value was; (3.72 mg. 100 gm-1) , Phosphor (0.81 mg. 100 gm-1), Nitrogen (2.25 mg. 100 gm-1) , magnesium (0.97 mg. 100 gm-1), Length of plant ( 81 cm ), No. of grains ( 71 grain. Spike-1 ) , weight 1000 grains (45.7gm. 1000 grains)

EVALUATION OF LAND DEGRADATION FOR HORAN VALLEY BY USING SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE INDICES

Muthana Khalil Ibrahim

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 56-63

The study was aimed to evaluate soil degradation in Horan valley the greatest in western desert of Iraq as evidence of degradation degree using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and land degradation index (LDI) for three periods (1984, 1999, 2013). The study showed that moderate degradation in NDVI index occupied the most area within the area of change values 11044.7 km 2 which formed (61%) of the valley area, while the sever and very sever degradation proportions were 28.5% and 10% and occupied area (5126.75 and 1794.47) km2 respectively as a result of time series mentioned above, while the area of sever change in soil degradation increase of (8990.57) km2 ie 50% of the valley area in correspond with 2789.74 and 6185.56 km2 of the valley's area. as increase percent of 15% and 34% for very severe and moderate change with

PREVALENCE OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA INFUCTION IN AL RUTBA REGION/ AL ANBAR GOVERNORATE AND STUDY OF EFFECT EXTRACT OF FRANKENIA PULVERULENTA ON PARASITE

Suad Shallal. SH

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 64-71

This study includes a survey for Entamoeba histolytica parasite infestations that test 782 stool sample its collection from patients visited AL- Rutba hospital and health centers in AL-Rutba city from 1/10/ 2017to 1/4/2016 and relationship the infection with age, sex, accommodation area, educational status and the sources of the water. Results indicted a total infection percent was 58.3% , the infection percent in males was 69.65% which was higher than the infection percent in females which was 46.31%, the highest infection percent was 76.4% at age (1-10) years. While the results showed that the incidence of infection in the countryside was higher than in the city where it reached 70.43 and 46.31%, respectively. The results also indicated that the parasite in the well water was higher than in the water of the dam, dam water and filter water, with( 78.6, 76.7, 73.5 and 20.7)% respectively. The study included effect of alcoholic and water extract of Frankenia pulverulenta with various concentrations on the growth of Entamoeba histolytica in culture, the results indicated that the concentration 1%, 0.7% of alcoholic extract and the concentration1% of water extract during a processing period 24 hours is more effective on growth of the parasite with percent 100% compared with control (0%) , the imp ad of alcohol extract is batter the water extract.

SOIL MINERALOGICAL IDENTIFICATION IN PRIPJ REGION AS A SAMPLE FOR IRAQI SOUTHERN DESERT

Ali H. Al-Bayati

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 72-83

To study and identify soil minerals in the arid regions of Iraq, a transect of seven pedons distributed in Pripj region, which forms the largest trough in the southern desert of Muthanna province, was selected, the pedons were morphologically described and obtained disturbed soil samples from every horizon for the purpose of conducting some mineralogical analysis. Results of mineralogical analysis of the very fine sand showed supremacy of the light minerals, which formed more than 93% in comparison with the heavy minerals. The light minerals showed the supremacy of quartz in all the studied pedions horizons, followed by Feldspar and gypsum respectively, also the presence of fragments of different rocks types was noticed, especially carbonates, chert and mudstone rocks. Weathering index for light minerals by soil quartz content over feldspars mineral showed values ranged between 11.6-33.1, the results of this index showed higher values in the high topographic regions, in comparison with the pedons in the low regions of the trough which were characterized with a different pattern of the other pedons. Whereas the percentage of the heavy minerals ranged between 2.09-7.55% with an average of 4.99%, with a clear increase in the registered values of the low regions pedons in comparison with the high regions pedons, the results also showed that one of the most important identified minerals in the studied pedons is the opaque's minerals' group which showed the highest percents in the heavy minerals group, with similarity in the quality of the heavy minerals and difference in the quantity of the studied pedons soils, which indicates that these soils are resedimented. To study the weathering intensity of the heavy minerals (easily weathered minerals/resistant minerals to weathering), the ratio between(Carnet+ Tourmaline/ Amp bole + Pyroxene) was used as a weathering index. The results showed weak differences in the weathering index percents of the heavy minerals for all the studied soils. Also we counted the index minerals percent which included the sum of resistant minerals( Carnet + Rutile + Zircon + Tourmaline) this percent was corresponding with preceding percent, and showed raising in the surface horizons.

EVALUATION OF SOME CARAWAY CULTIVARS PERFORMANCE USING TERNARY PLOT AND AMMI BIPLOT TECHNIQUE

Ali F.Almehemdi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 84-91

Adaptability of Plant species (crops) cultivars could be characterized using their performance via certain trait over given environment. Thus, multi methods were applied to investigate this adaptability ofv10 cultiraj from caraway. Therefore, ternary plot conducted out at first time in middleeast especially in Iraq to test ten cultivars of caraway adaptation via carvone% and its yield (kg.ha-1) across two locations, Fallujah and Ramadi for two successive seasons, 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 to become four environments. AMMI biplot laid out to support ternary plot. Past software used to construct ternary plot graphs. Also cropstat 7.2 software to extract cultivars and envirronments biplots. Results reveald that ternary plot method sorted cutlivars into three categories relied on carvone% viz non-adaptable cultivars included G4. While the other two categories involved cultivars those had two behavors once adaptable again non-adaptable that located on straight line between Ibottom and Itop the last one included cultivars that once behad near to Itop again to Imiddle that located on mid of triangle. According to carvone yield, G3 is semi-adaptable across four environments, whereas, AMMI Biplot precisely showed that G3 and G7 were most adaptable over most evnvironments. Thus, G7 was the most adaptable genotype.

EFFECTS OF LAND AND WELL WATER EXPLOITATION IN FERTILITY CHARACTERIZATION IN ABUGRIB SOILS

Farhan Mohammed Jassim Al - Thiabi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 92-103

This study included knowing effects of land and well water exploitation in fertility characterization. The region of the study is characterized with dry climate and Level to nearly level slope. After field investigation about the nature of agricultural exploitation in the region as well as management method, four agricultural systems were chosen where their age not less than 10 years in order to get to the homogeny status in management manner. Five pidons were digged in study area. Soil samples were taken from each characterized horizon in order to study physical, chemical and fertility characterization while water samples, they were taken from wells water. The results showed the following: 1-The results showed that the EC for surface horizons which were used agriculturally between( 0.82 – 2.3 dS. m-1) while the surface. 2- The results showed tangible increase in soluble ion concentration of anions and cations in soil solution. The values of Calcium were between( 14 – 19.5 centimole charge kg-1) while magnesium values were between ( 6.9 – 11.4 centimole charge kg-1 ) while sodium values were( 6.3 – 19.2 centimole charge kg-1), potassium values were between (0.24 – 0.35 mg kg sol-1). Bicarbonate values were between (3.5 – 5.6 centimole charge kg-1) sulphate values (4.5 – 12.2 centimole chage kg-1) while chlorides values were between (17.7 – 29.3 centimole charge kg-1). 3-Available nitrogen in the study soils values were between (16.4 – 36.2 mg Kg soil-1), available phosphorus (13.95 – 43 mg Kg soil-1), available potassium (190.7 – 225 mg Kg soil-1), available iron (5.3 – 7.5 mg Kg soil-1) and available zinc (0.58 – 6.6 mg kg soil-1) and for all soils. 4-The results of the study showed that EC values for used in irrigation (well water) were between (2.2 – 4.30 dS. m-1) and pH (7.3 – 7.5). The values of SAR were between (1.6 – 4) and the classification of study water according to (USDA ,1954) was within (C3- S1)

THE EFFECT OF SEVERAL LEVELS FORM MAGNESIUM APPLICATION FOLIAR SPRAY ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WHEAT PLANTTriticumaestivum L. (var. fatah)

Sameer Sarhan Alrawi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 104-108

This experiment has been carried out in the Biology Dept.- Collage of Education for Women –University of Anbar during the winter Season 2012_2013, The aim has been to study the effect of several levels of magnesium (0, 100, 150, 200 and 250)mg.L-1Mgo , Application foliar spray on some morphological properties of wheat plant leaves (Fatah) which include No. of branches, No .of leaves, leave area, dry weight of the vegetative part and dry weight of the roots. The experiment has also included (CRD) was used at three replicates for each treatment. Flowerpots with a capacity of (8) Kg of soil have been prepared ; frtilizers have been added to wheat (TriticumaestivumL.) according to recommendation. The sprayed on plant leaves, seven times each levels oh added magnesium, one spraying for each ten days. The results could be summarized as follows. Increasing levels of magnesium addition had significantly; addition magnesium level at 200 mg.L-1. No of leaves Value was; (11 leaves.plant-1) of leave area, (46 cm2) of dry weight of the vegetative part (81 gm) dry weight of the roots, (16gm), except No. of branches where addition level at 250 mg.L-1 the excelled, and the highest value was (3.8 branch.plant-1).

PREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII PARASITE AND THEIR CAUSES IN AL- RAMADI CITY AL- ANBAR GOVERNORATE.

Suad Shallal Shahatha

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 109-116

This study includes a survey for Toxoplasma gondii parasite infestations that check 180 blood samples its collection from pregnant women which arriving to ramadi general hospital for women and chilidran and some helth center in ramadi city through year 2012 and relationship the infection to age , aducation level , year months , number of projection and the type of projection . it,s leads to the results whole are 45.55% , as complete check 84 blood smear from men its was 36.90% and included examination 138 blood smears of animals ( 68 from sheep and 70 from cows ) it was the infection 41.30% . And through check 120 soil samples its collection from diffrents regions of Ramadi city its score parasite infection of T.gondii 32.50% . and it’s was score of cats 50% that check 112 samples smear feces its collection from different regions of Ramadi city .